The Netherlands is part of the Schengen area. The Schengen area consists of various European countries.
There are no border controls within this area. There is also free movement of goods and persons. This means that nationals of these countries may freely travel to the other countries in the Schengen area.
Travel in the Schengen area
At all times, you need a valid passport or other travel document if you wish to travel.
Travel with a short stay visa
A valid 'single entry' visa allows you to enter the Schengen area once. You are allowed to stay in the Schengen area for 90 days in any 180 day period. During these 90 days you are allowed to travel to and stay in all Schengen countries. Are you travelling to the Schengen area via another country ? You then have to show that the Netherlands is the destination.
Travel with a provisional residence permit (mvv)
A valid mvv allows you to enter and depart the Netherlands and other countries in the Schengen area.
Travel with a residence permit
A valid Dutch residence permit allows you to stay in all countries in the Schengen area up to 90 days in any 180 day period.