Depending on your nationality or the purpose of your stay, you might need a work permit to work in the Netherlands.
When you come to the Netherlands to work as a researcher or as an employee of a university or knowledge institute, you are in most cases exempt from a work permit based on your residence permit. EU/ EER citizens do not need a work permit.
Following this link you can check if you are exempt from a work permit.
A work permit under less stringent rules
Most research situations which do not fall under an exemption of the work permit can still apply for a work permit under less stringent rules. Less stringent rules for example mean that the employer does not need to prove that he could find no suitable person within the EU.
A full work permit
If neither the exemptions nor the less stringent rules apply to your situation, your employer will have to apply for a full work permit. Now it will be checked if there is no supply of suitable workers within the EU which could also do the work.
Also interesting for you: restrictions work permit, how to apply for a work permit?